Flooding Damages and Proper Ways to Control It
The generally accepted definition of a flood is a body of water covering land usually dry under normal circumstances. Floods constitute regular natural calamities. Human development is always affected by flooding worldwide. Listed among the effects of flooding are they destroy premises, influence soil erosion and contaminate water for drinking. Causes of floods are many including overflowing lakes, rivers as well as seas. Flooding is as old a human life. Civilization resulted from human being occupying riverbanks and bays. The reason was simple as human life needs water.
Flooding also carries its good side in spite of the many negative effects. Fertility of the land around River Nile in Egypt owes its allegiance to floods by the same river. This was before the floods along the said river were contained by the construction of Aswan High Dam. Although human life suffers much, floods deposit fertile soil in Bangladesh during the monsoon season. It is besides the fact that so many lives are lost in the process.
Plain land next to rivers will always flood at least once every year. Rivers carry in excess of their capacity during rainy seasons. The other related cause is the melting of snow in the mountains where most rivers have sources. Thunderstorms result in flash floods as well. When they occur, small rivers are forced to carry water ten times their capacity. Silt, sand and water are carried by slow moving rivers. In the process, they put up their beds. Beds raise rivers above their normal level even in comparison to the land that hosts them. Examples of such rivers are in Chicago.
Phoenix AZ Rivers build floods slowly but the result is more damaging. A bigger area is affected by these floods. Floods do not spare even coastal lands found in areas such as Fort Myers. Floor tsunamis that result from earthquakes on the ocean lead to more than 15-meter high waves. They then flood several miles on the land from the coastline. A tsunami in the Indian claimed more than 250,000 people. Deaths were recorded in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
Identified causes of floods are Cyclones, hurricanes as well as tropical storms. Just like in Chicago, Hurricane Katrina produced massive flooding in the entire Mississippi Delta. The effect was felt in Fort Myers and Phoenix AZ. Residents of these areas were evacuated by government agencies and other humanitarian organizations to avoid further human fatalities. The dangers of flooding increase in low-lying regions. The Netherlands, whose major part lies below sea level, is an example. Recently, floods almost wiped Haiti out of the world map.
What people do in many ways contributes to floods. Trees and other plants are helpful in absorbing excess water. Cutting down trees leaves the land bare for water to act on. Mudslides result from the same. Excessive pressure on dams by water leads to cracks in the concrete wall. At times, they cause total breakage of the wall. Many methods are developed o take care of the effects of floods. Dams and dykes in the Netherlands control the water.